Saturday, June 30, 2012

The World's Most Majestic Skyscrapers

Windows tips & tricks


Get extra memory in a flash with ReadyBoost—watch this video to see how. (0:39)
Want a simple way to speed up your PC?
Just plug in a USB flash drive or card and let ReadyBoost borrow it. ReadyBoost is designed to help when your PC's memory is running low. Low memory can make your computer sluggish because Windows, which needs a place to stash data, turns to the hard drive. Flash memory offers a speedier alternative.
ReadyBoost works with most flash storage devices. In Windows 7, it can handle more flash memory and even multiple devices—up to eight, for a maximum 256 gigabytes (GB) of additional memory.

Turn ReadyBoost on or off for a storage device

ReadyBoost can speed up your computer by using storage space on most USB flash drives and flash memory cards.
Watch this video to learn how to turn ReadyBoost on or off for a storage device (1:32)

To turn ReadyBoost on or off

  1. Plug a flash drive or flash memory card into your computer.
  2. In the Autoplay dialog box, under General options, click Speed up my system.
  3. In the Properties dialog box, click the ReadyBoost tab, and then do one of the following:
    • To turn ReadyBoost off, click Do not use this device.
    • To use the maximum available space on the flash drive or memory card for ReadyBoost, click Dedicate this device to ReadyBoost. Windows will leave any files already stored on the device, but it'll use the rest to boost your system speed.
    • To use less than the maximum available space on the device for ReadyBoost, click Use this device, and then move the slider to choose the amount of available space on the device you want to use.
  4. Click OK.
    Picture of the ReadyBoost tabMove the slider to choose how much space you want to designate for boosting your system speed.


  • If AutoPlay doesn't open, it might be disabled. For more information, see Troubleshoot AutoPlay problems.
  • For ReadyBoost to effectively speed up your computer, the flash drive or memory card should have at least 1 gigabyte (GB) of available space. If your drive or card doesn't have enough available space for ReadyBoost, you'll see a message telling you to free some space on it. For best results, use a flash drive or flash memory card with at least double the amount of available space as the amount of memory (RAM) in your computer.
For more information about how ReadyBoost works and what types of flash memory devices work with it, see Using memory in your storage device to speed up your computer.

Using memory in your storage device to speed up your computer

ReadyBoost can speed up your computer by using storage space on most USB flash drives and flash memory cards. When you plug a ReadyBoost-compatible storage device into your computer, the AutoPlay dialog box offers you the option to speed up your computer using ReadyBoost. If you select this option, you can choose how much memory on the device to use for this purpose.
When you set up a device to work with ReadyBoost, Windows shows you how much space it recommends you allow it to use for optimal performance. For ReadyBoost to effectively speed up your computer, the flash drive or memory card should have at least 1 gigabyte (GB) of available space. If your device doesn't have enough available space for ReadyBoost, you'll see a message telling you to free some space on the device if you want to use it to speed up your system.
You can enable or disable ReadyBoost for a specific flash drive or other removable storage device. For more information, see Turn ReadyBoost on or off for a storage device.
Picture of the ReadyBoost tabThe ReadyBoost tab lets you decide how much storage space on a removable device to use for boosting your system speed.


  • If your computer has a hard disk that uses solid-state drive (SSD) technology, you might not see an option to speed up your computer with ReadyBoost when you plug in a USB flash drive or flash memory card. You may instead receive the message, "Readyboost is not enabled on this computer because the system disk is fast enough that ReadyBoost is unlikely to provide any additional benefit." This is because some SSD drives are so fast they're unlikely to benefit from ReadyBoost.
  • In some situations, you might not be able to use all of the memory on your device to speed up your computer. For example, some flash memory devices contain both slow and fast flash memory, but ReadyBoost can only use fast flash memory to speed up your computer.

    Ways to improve your computer's performance

    Performance Information and Tools, the Windows Experience Index, and ReadyBoost all offer ways to help improve the performance of your computer.

    Tasks that can help improve performance

    Tasks in the left pane of Performance Information and Tools can help you improve your computer's performance.

    To open Performance Information and Tools

    • Open Performance Information and Tools by clicking the Start button Picture of the Start button, and then clicking Control Panel. In the search box, type Performance Information and Tools, and then, in the list of results, click Performance Information and Tools.
    Task Description
    Adjust visual effects
    Optimize performance by changing how menus and windows appear.
    Adjust indexing options
    Indexing options can help you find what you're looking for quickly and easily on your computer.
    You can search more efficiently by narrowing your search to focus on those files and folders that you commonly use. For more information, see Improve Windows searches using the index: frequently asked questions.
    Adjust power settings
    Change power-related settings so that your computer resumes from power-saving settings more efficiently, and adjust battery usage for portable computers.
    Open Disk Cleanup
    This tool deletes unnecessary or temporary files on your hard disk so you can increase the amount of storage space you have. For more information, see Delete files using Disk Cleanup.
    Advanced tools
    Access advanced system tools, such as Event Viewer, Disk Defragmenter, and System Information, that system administrators and IT professionals often use to solve problems. You can also view notifications about performance-related issues and what to do about them. For example, if Windows detects that a driver is reducing performance, click the notification to learn which driver is causing the problem and view help on how to update the driver. Issues listed at the beginning of the list are impacting the system more than issues listed further down the list.

    View details about your computer's capability

    The Windows Experience Index measures the capability of your computer's hardware and software configuration and expresses this measurement as a number called a base score. A higher base score generally means that your computer will perform better and faster than a computer with a lower base score, especially when performing more advanced and resource-intensive tasks.

    To view your computer's base score

    • Open Performance Information and Tools by clicking the Start button Picture of the Start button, and then clicking Control Panel. In the search box, type Performance Information and Tools, and then, in the list of results, click Performance Information and Tools.
      The Windows Experience Index base score and subscores for your computer are displayed on this page. If you don't see subscores and a base score, click Rate this computer. Administrator permission required If you're prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation. If you recently upgraded your hardware and want to find out if your score has changed, click Re-run the assessment. Administrator permission required If you're prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation.
    The Windows Experience Index is used by other software makers, so you can buy programs that are matched to your computer's base score. For more information, see What is the Windows Experience Index?
    To view detailed information about the hardware on your computer, such as processor speed, the amount of random access memory (RAM) installed, and hard disk size, click View and print detailed performance and system information.

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Ten awesome Windows tips & tricks

Ten awesome Windows tips & tricks

It certainly looks sweet, but we'll see what Microsoft's radically redesigned Windows 8 operating system will offer computer users later this year.
Until then, there's still a lot to learn about your existing Windows PC.
Yes, even if you've been tapping and clicking away on it for years, you've probably only scratched the surface of what it can do. Like our brains, it's estimated we only use about 10 percent of what our tech toys are capable of.
To help bridge the gap, here we offer a number of assorted tips and tricks, shortcuts and other little-known features built into your Windows machine. Some are tied specifically to Windows 7, where indicated, but most are applicable for all versions of Windows released over the past decade.
Get to know shortcuts
If the extent of your shortcuts is CTRL+C for copy and CTRL+V for paste, you're not taking advantage of all Windows has to offer. There are many, many dozens of handy shortcuts to master, including one of my favorites: Windows key + left or right arrow button, which snaps the window to the left or right, so you can see two open windows equally — perfect for multitasking. As a journalist who uses a word processor every day, I've also grown reliant upon "undo" (CTRL+Z) and "redo" (CTRL+Y). By the way, you can even create your own shortcuts to get more done in less time.
Pin those apps
See that taskbar at the bottom of the screen? In Windows 7, you can pin any application, website, file or folder you use a lot, so you can easily click to open it — regardless of what program you might be in. That is, if you use the calculator a lot, simply right mouse click on the app and choose "Pin to Taskbar" and move it wherever you like. This is much faster than clicking on the Start button, selecting All Programs, then Accessories and finally Calculator. For files, such as a Word or PDF document, simply drag to the taskbar and let go. If you have a lot of pins on your taskbar, you can press the Windows key (beside Alt) and a number (e.g. 1 or 2) and the corresponding app will launch from your taskbar.
Jump around
Speaking of those pinned apps on your taskbar, Windows 7 can take advantage of "jumplists" by simply right mouse-clicking on the pinned app and selecting from one of the options. For example, if Internet Explorer is one of your pinned apps, right click to select your most visited websites. If you've got Windows Media Player you can listen to recently played songs. Not all pinned apps offer jumplists, of course, but those that do let you get more done in less time. Experiment to see what's available. Watch this short video to get you started, too.
Need more time?
This is one of my favorites. If you're using Windows or Microsoft Office and you'd like to extend the activation period to the maximum 120 days instead of the usual 30-day period, it's possible if you use Windows Vista and Windows 7 and you're the administrator of the PC. Simply click on the Start button and in the search window, type in cmd and you'll see the Command Prompt at the top of the page. Don't press Enter yet — instead, right-mouse click on the shortcut and select Run as Administrator. Now, after the Command Prompt loads up, type this: slmgr.vbs -rearm and the hit Enter and reboot. That's it.
Stop YELLING at people
Have you ever written an email to someone and when you look up at the screen you realize you accidentally tapped the Caps Lock key? Now it seems like you're YELLING AT SOMEONE IN THE EMAIL? It's happened to most of us — especially those who look at their keyboard while typing instead of the monitor. If you're nodding right now, chances are you've manually deleted everything you wrote in uppercase and wrote it all over again in lowercase. That's a waste of time when you can simply highlight the text in question, hold down the Shift button on the keyboard and tap F3. Doing so will immediately change the case from lower to upper (or vice-versa). Yes, really. Tap a third time to change the highlighted text to Title case, Where The First Letter Of Every Word Is Capitalized. This little-known SHIFT + F3 shortcut will save you time — and frustration — and works in Outlook, Word and other Microsoft programs.
Shake it up
Ever glance at your computer monitor and see a cluttered mess of open windows, such as a browser, media player, IM window and word processor? A quick way to close it all and focus on one application is to click and hold your mouse on top of an open pane and give your mouse a shake. Doing this will minimize all your open windows, except for the one you're in. Give your wrist a shake again and they all reappear. Windows calls this "Aero Shake" and it can be a fast way to get rid of the clutter in a snap. Give it a shot. If your version of Windows doesn't have it, you can download it for free here.
Batch rename
Photo takers should get to know the "batch rename" feature in Windows Explorer. Instead of all your images having arbitrary names like IMG_0339.jpg or DSC01121.jpg, you can highlight all your photos in a folder, right mouse-click and select Rename; now type in something relevant to the photos, like Spring Break 2012. And hit Enter. Now, all of those files will be renamed with a number at the end, such as Spring Break 2012 (1).jpg, plus you can quickly see what's inside the photo file by changing from "list" view to "large icons." This batch rename tip can also be used for documents and other media.
Encrypt it
If you share your Windows computer with someone and have a folder or files you want to password-protect, there's an easy way to do it with a built-in encryption tool. First select the folder or file you wish to encrypt, right-click on it and choose Properties. Now click the Advanced button and add a check beside "Encrypt contents to secure data" option. Click Apply and then Ok. To access this file you'll type in your Windows password used to log into your account. If your version of Windows doesn't offer this feature, there's always the free TrueCrypt software.
Get a boost
If you own Windows Vista or Windows 7, a little-known feature called ReadyBoost can give your PC a boost — without having to add more RAM (system memory). Instead, ReadyBoost lets you use a USB flash drive or SD memory card -- which you might already have in your desk drawer -- to improve performance without having to install purchased memory. The flash memory you connect externally serves as an additional memory cache -- meaning the computer can access data quicker on this than on the hard drive. You can choose to allocate part of a USB drive's memory to speed up performance and use the remainder to store files. More information on ReadyBoost is here.
Search me
It might be an obvious one but be sure to use the search window to find what you're looking for — be it a program or file. Simply click the Start button and you'll see a universal search window at the bottom of the pop-up window. Start typing a few letters and Windows will try to guess what you're looking for by showing you matching apps or files near the top of the window (such as typing C and U, and immediately seeing Cute FTP Professional as a selectable option). This simplifies the search process that used to take a while on older versions of Windows.

Friday, June 29, 2012

Bahaya Buat Autosave Password Dalam PC

Autosave password kadang-kadang memudahkan kita. Kalau orang yang malas nak mengingat password macam aku ni, function tu sangat membantu. Biasanya kita set password untuk email dan akaun yang biasa kita buka. Dalam kesenangan pasti ada bala. Kalaulah PC atau Laptop kita hilang haru biru dibuatnya.
Tak payah fikir pasal hilang. Cuba fikirkan pasal peminjam. Kita kan murah hati sangat. Kawan nak pinjam kita bagi. Kawan kepada kawan kita nak pinjam pun kita bagi. Ingat mereka tak boleh dapatkan password korang ke? Sebenarnya nak dapatkan password yang kita simpan cukup mudah. Tak perlu belajar tinggi-tinggi. Cuma kena tahu kat mana nak buka je.
Bayangkan kalau email korang orang lain tau passwordnya. Akaun facebook orang dapat curi password. Huh nauzubillah… minta dihindarkan dari bala seperti itu. Tapi kita kena juga berwaspada. Jangan serahkan semuanya pada Allah selagi kita tak berusaha.
Sedikit tutorial ringkas macam mana nak dapatkan password yang kita save dalam PC. Ini untuk sesiapa yang guna browser Google Chrome. Untuk browser yang lain konsepnya lebihkurang sama.
Ikut langkah-langkah mudah di bawah :
  • Pada browser korang, tekan gambar spana dan akan keluar satu paparan. Takan pada option.
  • Lepas option ditekan akan keluar pulak satu muka baru.
  • Langkah seterusnya adalah tekan pada Personal Stuff. Satu paparan antaramuka personal stuff kelihatan. Apa yang perlu korang cari semakin hampir. Lihat pada option Password. Klik pada Manage Saved Password. Kat situla tempat tersimpannya segala password yang korang simpan selama ni.
  • Paparan menunjukkan laman web, username dah password anda. Nak tengok password tu klik button show. Taraaaaa… maka keluarlah password korang kat situ.
Tengoklah bertapa mudahnya nak ambik password dalam PC tu. Bahaya kan kalau PC atau laptop kita terlepas ke tangan orang lain. Jadi berhati-hatilah dalam menentukan kerahsiaan komputer peribadi korang.
Sebagai langkah selamat sila gunakan otak sebagai database dan store menyimpan segala username dan password. Cara mudah dan selamat. Kalau hari-hari korang bukak laman web tu dan hari-hari masukkan password insyallah akan ingat password korang tu.

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Wednesday, June 27, 2012

Wahai Calon-calon PMR, SPM dan STPM 2012 !

It's not what you do
It's how you do it.
It's not what you see
It's how you look at it.
It's not how your life is
It's how you live it.
So, why stop dreaming, when you wake up ?

Let’s talk about cookies. Those warm, gooey little treats are so delicious . . . wait, not those kinds of cookies. Let’s talk about Internet cookies.
Websites save information about you in cookies (files) on your computer. The next time you visit that site, the code will read that file to “remember” you. We rely on cookies all the time. For example, when you go to a Website and the page remembers your username and password – that’s made possible by a cookie.
There are also cookies that remember more detailed information about you. Perhaps your interests, your Web browsing patterns, etc. This means that a site can provide you more targeted content – often in the form of ads. There are types of cookies, called third-party cookies – that track you from sites you’re not even visiting at the time to gather information about you, which is sometimes sold.
Some cookies track you until you close your browser. Other cookies track you until you delete them. In general, cookies can’t harm your computer, but sometimes people are concerned about cookies and their privacy.
You could delete all of your cookies, but that may mean a more difficult Web-surfing experience. (You may be logged out of sites, some sites like Hotmail may not work effectively, and shopping carts may not remember your preferences.) Maybe there are some cookies you don’t mind, and others that you feel infringe on your privacy.
So now that you understand a bit more about cookies and what they do, let’s talk about your options.
There’s a growing awareness of a feature called Do Not Track, which is built into Firefox. (Menu Bar > Options > Privacy > Check “Tell websites I do not want to be tracked.”) It tells sites (and their advertisers and partners) that you don’t want your browsing behavior tracked. While sites don’t have to honor this, those that do will stop tracking you. Those that don’t will get the message as more and more people request this. Turning on Do Not Track won’t affect your ability to log in to sites, use shopping carts, etc.
You could turn on Private Browsing, which allows you to browse the Internet without saving any information about which sites and pages you’ve visited. (Menu Bar > Tools > Start Private Browsing.) Private Browsing doesn’t make you anonymous on the Internet, however.
There’s also a setting in Firefox that allows you to Clear Recent History. This article explains what information is stored in your history and gives you step-by-step ways to clear all of part of it.
You can manage cookies on your own (though this might affect some of the sites you use.) To see how, view this support article on Cookies.
You could also use Firefox Add-ons to help you manage your cookies, and which sites see what information. See the full list of privacy and security Add-ons.
So now that you understand Internet cookies better, give yourself a hand. And maybe treat yourself to one of those other kinds of cookies – the yummy kind.

Sunday, June 24, 2012


 1.Pengenalan Kepada Blog

Useful info about SLEEPWALKING.

Sleepwalking is a disorder that happens when someone walks or does another activity while he/she is still asleep. When people sleepwalk, they may sit up and look as though they are awake when they are actually asleep. It most commonly occurs in children who are otherwise normal. While the exact cause for sleepwalking is unknown, it may be scary for parents. Some factors such as illness, fever, lack of sleep, depression, stress, and anxiety may trigger sleepwalking,. Nearly one-third of individuals with nocturnal wandering had a family history of the disorder.
Around 3.6 percent of U.S. adults — or upward of 8.4 million — are prone to sleepwalking.

Other recent findings about sleepwalking:

The duration of sleepwalking was mostly chronic, with just over 80 percent of those who have sleepwalked reporting they’ve done so for more than five years.
Sleepwalking was not associated with gender and seemed to decrease with age.
People using over-the-counter sleeping pills had a higher likelihood of reporting sleepwalking episodes at least two times per month.

A Story Of Two Friends Lost In Desert

Write in the Sand
I Learned a Chapter Of Life After Reading this Story
So I Thought Of Sharing It With You Too.
Hope You Will LIKE it Too :)

Two friends were walking through the desert. In a specific point of the journey, they had an argument, and one friend slapped the other one in the face.

The one, who got slapped, was hurt, but without anything to say, he wrote in the sand: “TODAY, MY BEST FRIEND SLAPPED ME IN THE FACE”.

They kept on walking, until they found an oasis, where they decided to take a bath. The one who got slapped and hurt started drowning, and the other friend saved him. When he recovered from the fright, he wrote on a stone: “TODAY MY BEST FRIEND SAVED MY LIFE”.

The friend who saved and slapped his best friend, asked him, “Why, after I hurt you, you wrote in the sand, and now you write on a stone?”

The other friend, smiling, replied: “When a friend hurts us, we should write it down in the sand, where the winds of forgiveness get in charge of erasing it away, and when something great happens, we should engrave it in the stone of the memory of the heart, where no wind can erase it”


About numbers !

Study loan conversion scheme expanded

Study loan conversion scheme expanded

PASIR GUDANG: Graduates who obtained first class honours before Jan 1, 2010 and have loans with the National Higher Education Corporation (PTPTN) can convert them into scholarships.
Before this, the loan conversion was available only to students who graduated after 2010.
Up to June 15 this year, 16,194 students had converted their PTPTN loans to scholarships worth RM445.27mil.
Explaining the decision to widen the scope for those eligible, Higher Education Minister Datuk Seri Mohamed Khaled Nordin said: “The Government believes students who studied hard should be rewarded. Hence, we have decided to extend this offer.”
He said the decision will benefit 4,430 eligible first class honours students or those with equivalent qualifications. Khaled said most of these students had yet to complete repaying their loans.
However, he added, PTPTN would ensure that whatever the students had paid would be refunded.
Khaled announced the move when launching the new National Education Savings Scheme-i (SSPN-i) here yesterday. Students keen to know about the latest PTPTN loan-scholarship conversion can log on to

PBS : Excelling the stress-free way !

Excelling the stress-free way

ASSESSMENT is a vital component of education as it informs teachers, parents and the learners’ themselves about their progress in the learning curve, besides helping teachers and school administrators assess the effectiveness of teaching methods and school activities conducted to complement the teaching and learning process.
On Dec 17, 2010, the Cabinet agreed to introduce School-Based Assessment, or Pentaksiran Berasaskan Sekolah (PBS), as part of the Education Transformation Plan to realign the education system from one that focuses largely on academic excellence to a more holistic assessment.
PBS emphasises assessment for learning and assessment of learning to ensure a more systematic mastery of knowledge.
PBS assesses each child holistically, taking into account the learner’s overall well-being (including the intellectual, emotional, spiritual and physical aspects) in tandem with the National Education Philosophy, as well as the Standard Curriculum for Primary Schools (KSSR).
PBS was introduced last year in all government and government-aided primary schools, and this year in all government and government-aided secondary schools. Thus Ujian Pencapaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR) in 2016 and Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR) 2014 will be revamped to accommodate the transformation.
What is PBS?
PBS is a holistic form of assessment which assesses the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains, encompassing the intellectual, emotional, spiritual and physical aspects. PBS embraces both academic and non-academic fields.
Teachers are given due recognition and have the autonomy to conduct formative assessment during the learning process and also summative assessment at the conclusion of a learning unit or any other suitable time during the school year at their own discretion, taking into account their pupils’ readiness.
There are four components in the PBS; namely, Central Assessment; School Assessment; Assessment of Physical, Sports and Co-curricular Activities and Psychometric Assessment.
Central assessment involves one or more tasks set by the Examinations Syndicate but administered and graded by teachers based on scoring rubrics provided by the central body.
School assessment is set, administered, graded and reported by the school based on the requirements of the curriculum.
Learners’ participation and involvement in sports and co-curricular activities are recorded and reported in Assessment of Physical, Sports and Co-curricular Activities. Thus co-curricular activities also have a bearing on a pupil’s overall achievement.
Psychometric assessment is another non-academic component that measures pupils’ innate and acquired abilities.
Why PBS?
The objectives of the PBS are:
·To enhance the meaningfulness of assessment where the focus is more on pupils’ development and growth in learning rather than merely on their achievements in the form of scores or grades;
·To reduce the over-reliance and over-dependence on data (grades and scores) obtained through central examinations in getting information about pupils in the school system;
·To empower the school and teachers to conduct quality assessment of and for learning, involving their own pupils. Therefore school assessment will be given its due recognition and acknowledgement, and a significant place in the overall assessment system; and,
·To ensure the performance of pupils is comparable to accepted world standards in various areas of knowledge, skills, and competence, with the introduction of Standard-Referenced assessment in PBS.
What subjects are assessed through PBS?
PBS is used to assess all subjects taught in primary and lower secondary schools.
How do teachers implement PBS?
Teachers conduct formative assessment during the learning process and also summative assessment, which is normally carried out at the conclusion of a learning unit or at the end of a semester or at the end of the year.
This does not mean that teachers have to create test papers or handouts as instruments every time they wish to assess a pupil’s achievement. Teachers may carry out creative activities that are fun, to gather information about their pupils’ learning progress.
Homework, quizzes, question and answer sessions and even observations are all examples of activities which teachers could use as instruments to assess pupils’ development and growth.
The only difference now is that teachers have to record pupils’ learning progress systematically.
In order to help teachers record and report pupils’ progress, the Examinations Syndicate has developed the PBS Management System (SPPBS) which is web-based. SPPBS is also available in the standalone version for schools which do not have access to the Internet.
How is PBS different?
PBS concurs with the Standard Referenced Assessment in which pupils’ achievements are measured against a Performance Standard (Standard Prestasi) which is developed by the Examinations Syndicate and mapped from the standard curriculum.
Performance Standard explains the performance or mastery of a pupil in a particular field he undertakes within a learning period based on an identified benchmark.
Standard Referenced Assessment allows teachers as well as parents to trace and measure each pupil’s progress based on his performance measured against a set of performance indicators.
Thus, a learner’s achievement is no longer measured by comparing his grades/scores with those of his peers. In this manner, a learner only competes with himself.
Therefore a learner’s achievement is no longer gauged by his position in class. Instead his achievement is ranked with reference to bands One to Six; One being the lowest and Six the highest.
What are bands?
Learners’ achievements are reported with reference to Bands rather than Grades A,B,C etc, or raw scores, eg. 85%.
Band One shows that a learner tahu or knows. For example, in Mathematics, a Year One learner is able to recognise numbers 1,2,3 ...
Band Two reflects tahu dan faham or knows and understands, which in Mathematics refers to the ability to understand the value of numbers; for example, eight is less than nine, four is more than three etc.
Band Three records that a learner tahu, faham dan boleh buat, which shows that he is able to apply knowledge acquired. In Mathematics, Band Three shows that a learner can add, subtract, divide and multiply.
A learner who has attained Band Three is considered to have acquired the basic skills pertaining to the subject.
A learner who attains Band Four (tahu, faham dan boleh buat dengan beradap) shows the ability to solve an elementary mathematical operation using the correct protocol.
A Band Five (tahu, faham dan boleh buat dengan beradap) reflects the learner’s ability to solve problems. For example, if a spring chicken costs RM5, how many chickens can Ali buy with RM10?
Finally, a learner who is awarded a Band Six demonstrates the ability to make a value judgement and is creative or innovative in solving mathematical problems. For example, the blue shirt costs RM30 but it is on offer at 50% discount, thus it is better value compared to the same quality shirt on sale at RM20 nett.
Band Three is equal to a passing grade. Thus pupils who fail to achieve Band Three will be supported through remedial work to help them achieve a minimum Band Three.
PBS makes it possible for teachers to provide immediate feedback to pupils at each stage of the learning curve. The feedback based on the Performance Standard will enable teachers and pupils to identify their strengths and weaknesses during the learning process.
Thus, early detection of pupils’ inability to master a skill should enable the teachers to formulate remedial tasks to help them improve their learning and achievement accordingly.
Again, it is wise to remember that pupils are assessed against a set of performance indicators and not compared to the achievements of their peers.
Hence PBS enables learners’ to advance at their own pace in a less stressful learning environment.
Would PBS further burden teachers?
The main focus of PBS is assessment for and of learning. Assessment should be integrated in the learning process and be used to enhance pupils’ mastery of learning. If managed and implemented wisely, teachers would find PBS beneficial and less burdensome.
To ensure the smooth sailing of PBS, two applications – PBS Management System or SPPBS (Sistem Pengurusan Pentaksiran Berasakan Sekolah) and PAJSK (Pentaksiran Aktiviti Jasmani, Sukan dan Kokurikulum) – were developed to ensure teachers are not further burdened with clerical duties.
The applications store data pertaining to learners’ achievement which can be easily retrieved to report learners’ strengths and areas where more help is needed to parents and other interested parties.
What about teacher bias?
Teacher bias is largely reduced through quality assurance which ensures the reliability and validity of assessment outcomes.
Teachers are required to file evidence of pupils’ work as proof that the learner has attained the necessary skills to merit the bands they are awarded. In this context, quality assurance for PBS implementation is maintained through the process of mentoring, monitoring, moderation and detection at various levels.
Mentoring is the process of assisting, facilitating and guiding teachers to carry out PBS according to the correct procedures and principles of PBS.
Monitoring ensures that the correct procedures have been adhered to ensure the reliability and credibility of the assessment outcome.
Standardisation ensures uniformity of scores with reference to the Performance Standards based on the rubrics of an assignment.
Detection is the process that evaluates the strength, weaknesses and effectiveness of assessment tools.
Is the PBS a new invention?
No, it is not. Question and answer sessions, quizzes, homework and class work are all tools of assessment that have been employed by teachers to gauge their learners’ understanding. Teaching and learning is more fun and meaningful when assessment is cleverly designed and conducted.
PBS is being introduced as part of the National Transformation Programme to produce world-class human capital. It is one of the measures taken by the Malaysian Education Ministry to enhance pupils’ mastery of learning through the national assessment system and it is in-line with the Educational Transformation Plan.
The assessment transformation introduced by the Education Ministry via the PBS presents the idea that central examinations like the UPSR and PMR are no longer the sole form of evaluation in measuring pupils’ achievement.
Through the PBS, the ministry aims to help pupils’ realise their potential in both academic as well as non-academic fields within a learning environment that is more stress-free.
In a nutshell, PBS is an arduous endeavour that demands total commitment from teachers and school administrators to help each child reach their full potential.